How can we ensure smart, sustainable, and safe food manufacturing? A roundup from the SFN+ fifth Annual Conference on 3rd and 4th July 2023
Safety is a critical issue for food systems, both to safeguard public health and to give consumers confidence in healthy, sustainable food products. As the food landscape evolves, introducing novel ways to produce, process, and retail foods, this presents a constant stream of new food safety challenges. At the SFN+ fifth Annual Conference, a range of projects supported by the network demonstrated how they are applying cutting-edge techniques to achieve impact in this area.
Keynote talk: Preventing miscarriages of justice in the UK Official Food Control System, Selvarani Elahi MBE, UK Deputy Government Chemist, National Laboratories & Science, LGC Group.
We may take it for granted that our food is generally safe to eat, but many people work behind the scenes to ensure this. In the keynote talk for the session, Selvarani Elahi introduced the role of the UK Government Chemist (GC), a statutory function that has existed since 1875; the GC uses authoritative measurement procedures coupled with experienced interpretative skills to act as a fair and independent arbiter to resolve disputes, relating mainly to food and agriculture samples, between the Government and food industry. In doing so, the GC protects consumers, provides a route of technical appeal for businesses and contributes to regulatory enforcement in sectors where chemical and bio-measurements are important. The GC also provided independent expert advice on analytical science implications for policy, standards and regulations to HM Government and other stakeholders. The variety of cases encountered can be enormous and can range from pesticides and allergens, to authenticity and illegal dyes.
A key activity of the GC is to undertake regular horizon-scanning activities, to identify and prepare for emerging food safety issues, or where new legislation may lead to food business operators and local authorities requiring advice or support. One of the outputs of GC horizon scanning activities is a quarterly open access publication of Food and Feed Law: legislation reviews.
“A highly topical issue is the continuing prevalence of food allergens in ‘developed countries’” says Selvarani. “The prevalence of peanut allergy alone has doubled in children in Western countries over the past 10 years, and no one really know why. Food allergens have a huge impact on the quality of life of sufferers and can be fatal for some people if the required care is not taken. The GC works with stakeholders to improve the science of food allergen detection, and to develop training / guidance on risk assessments for food allergens.”
Periodically, the GC is asked to act as a referee in cases involving food allergens; one such case involved the alleged deliberate contamination of a ‘nut-free’ food factory with peanuts by an employee in an act of revenge. Although, copious amounts of peanut protein were detected on the overalls submitted for analysis, a prosecution could not be secured because of deficiencies in the way the samples were taken. The clean-up operation cost the food business over £1M and if the crime had gone undetected, the contaminated food would have been potentially fatal for peanut allergen sufferers.” says Selvarani.
“Our mission is ‘Science for a Safer World’; although we have access to more advanced techniques now compared to when the Laboratory of the Government Chemist was created in 1842, our purpose is still the same: to help protect consumers in a changing world.”
For further information on the work of the Government Chemist, read the 2022 Annual Review.
Understanding the role of additives in chocolate manufacture: linking molecular interactions to bulk rheology by Dr Tseden Taddese, Hartree Centre, Science and Technology Facilities Council.
Rheology modifiers are commonly used in the food industry to improve the flow and smoothness of products, but how they work at the molecular level is poorly understood. With chocolate as an exemplar, this project investigated whether molecular dynamics simulations could reveal how rheology modifiers work at the nanoscale to reduce friction. Using a discrete element modelling approach and the High-Performance Computing (HPC) capabilities at STFC Hartree, Tseden and her colleagues were able to estimate the friction coefficient between cocoa butter and sugar, and model how this changed with the addition of rheology modifiers such as lecithin. A key insight was that rheology modifiers may work by sticking to and coating the rough surfaces of sugar particles.
“These computational simulations have given us a deeper understanding and could act as a screening method to help select and develop new rheological modifiers.” Dr Tseden Taddese.
From nutrition to flavour: novel food and food ingredients from microalgae, by Dr Yixing Sui , The University of Greenwich.
Microalgae could provide nutritious and sustainable novel food products, but the distinct flavour and odour of green varieties can be challenging for consumers. This project investigated how adding an orange-coloured microalga called Dunaliella salina affected the smell and taste of mayonnaise, bread, and pasta. Using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GCMS), they demonstrated that the profile of volatile compounds and nutrient content varied significantly depending on the cooking process. The team also identified a specific compound which delivered an intensely sweet, floral odour and fruity taste: a promising candidate for further analysis.
“Dunaliella salina is a great candidate for novel food products, since the reduced chlorophyll content minimises off-putting smells, but it is also rich in beta-carotene, making it highly nutritious.” Dr Yixing Sui.
Identifying high yield protein extraction from seaweed via understanding structure-function relationship of cell wall, by Dr Parag Acharya, University of Greenwich
Seaweed could help us meet the rising demand for protein, without the significant greenhouse gas emissions and land use associated with livestock farming. A major challenge, however, is that there is currently no effective method to extract protein from seaweed. By developing a better understanding of the structure of seaweed cell walls, this project aims to develop low-emission technologies for optimal protein extraction. So far, they have identified the key points during current extraction methods where most protein loss occurs, and shown that adding a ‘pre-extraction grinding’ process could help increase extraction efficiency by reducing particle sizes.
“Maximising the potential of seaweed in food markets addresses multiple sustainable development goals, including sustainable agriculture, sustainable production and consumption, and climate action.” Dr Parag Acharya
Developing a new testing methodology for sugar syrup adulteration detection in honey, by Dr Maria Anastasiadi and Ms Mennatullah Shehata, Cranfield University
Honey is prized for its flavour and nutritional qualities, but the market is currently undermined by products suspected of being adulterated with cheap sugar syrups from plant sources such as sugar cane, maize, rice, and sugar beet. Because there is no single definitive method for verifying honey authenticity, this project is investigating two techniques in tandem to develop a new testing methodology.
The first method involves testing honey samples against DNA barcodes for the plant species used to make sugar syrups. To test this, the team sourced genuine honey from UK beekeepers and prepared samples spiked with different levels of syrups from rice, corn, or sugar beet. The preliminary results indicate that the method can effectively detect adulterated samples even at a concentration of 1% syrup.
The second approach uses Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy (SORS), which has the advantage of being non-invasive, so that honey jars do not even have to be opened. The team used their panel of pure and adulterated honey samples to obtain SORS measurements, which were then applied to train a machine learning model. When tested on novel samples, the model detected adulterated samples with an accuracy of 90%, and could detect concentrations of exogenous sugars as low as 20%.
“Our next stage is to engage with stakeholders such as the Food Standards Agency, DEFRA, bee-keepers and the honey industry to establish a UK Honey Authenticity Database.” Ms Mennatullah Shehata
“Both SORs and DNA barcoding are promising screening methods for honey authenticity. Coupling them together has great potential for a commercial tool that can increase consumer confidence.” Dr Maria Anastasiadi
Establishing a rapid testing system for contaminant detection in African honey as means of quality control and environmental monitoring, by Mr Bronson Eran’ogwa, The Source Plus
Traces of pesticides and contaminants in African honey products are a human health risk and limit access to Western markets. This project is investigating whether Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) could provide a rapid and cost-effective detection method. The method has been optimised in solution on different neonicotinoid pesticides such as thiamethoxam, achieving a Limit of Detection (LOD) of 0.1ppm. In the future we aim to optimise the method in African honey samples. Alongside this, they are using STFC Hartree Centre’s HPC facilities to develop a mathematical model which combines various data sources (including environmental variables and pesticide monitoring reports) to identify early indicators of honey contamination.
“Developing the African honey industry can unlock economic potential, generate income for farmers, and create employment opportunities. Access to Western markets is highly valuable, and addressing contamination issues is essential to meet their stringent import requirements.” Mr Bronson Eran’ogwa
Investigation into the nutritional and health benefits of cooked rice through traditional soaking process, by Showti Raheel Naser, Teesside University
Overnight soaking is a traditional preserving method for rice in South Asian countries, but it may also deliver unique health benefits that could combat malnutrition. Through a wide range of experimental techniques, including mass spectrometry and DNA sequencing, this project has demonstrated that overnight-soaked rice has significantly higher concentrations of certain micronutrients (such as iron and zinc) and firmicutes (beneficial gut bacteria), compared with non-soaked rice. The soaked rice also caused a lower spike in blood glucose levels when tested on non-diabetic people. In future work, the team intends to look further into the microbial colonies present in the soaked rice at species level and carry out structural analysis of soaked rice using advanced scanning electron microscopy.
“Better understanding of this cheap fermented rice could play an important role in health nutrition, particularly in rural villages where there is limited dietary diversity and rice is the main staple food.” Showti Raheel Naser
The potential of brown rice for improving health: Investigating the bioaccessibility of its key constituents, and barriers and drivers to consumption, by Dr Manoj Menon [at ARRNeT] , The University of Sheffield
Brown rice may be more nutritious than white, but it remains far less popular with consumers. This project is taking a broad approach to investigate the barriers against brown rice consumption, from elemental mapping of rice grains to investigating consumer perceptions. Using static digestion protocols that simulate the human digestion system, this will determine the bioavailability of both beneficial micronutrients and potential contaminants (such as arsenic). This will be combined with fine-scale elemental mapping carried out at the Diamond Light Source facility in Harwell. Alongside this, the team will carry out interviews with diabetic patients to understand the place of brown rice in their diet and barriers to consumption.
“The work will provide shed light into the real benefits and risks of consuming brown rice, to make informed decisions for consumers, its potential to address malnutrition, and opportunities to address the barriers associated with its popularity” Dr Manoj Menon
Moving towards smart and sustainable agriculture - a roundup from the SFN+ 5th Annual Conference on 3rd and 4th July 2023
Scaling up food production to feed the growing population would be a daunting challenge by itself, but somehow this must be achieved in the face of climate change, degraded natural resources, and increasing pressures on land, water and energy use. However, as the SFN’s 2023 Annual Conference demonstrated, projects supported by the network are redefining how we grow and produce our food – offering hope for a future of ‘Smart and Sustainable Agriculture.’
Keynote talk: The Odisha Millets Mission experience, Dr. Arabinda Kumar Padhee
Technological advancement may be a key driver of agricultural progress, but according to Dr Padhee, even greater transformational change could be achieved by switching to climate-resilient crops. Millet, for instance, requires significantly less water and land than many crops and has a low carbon footprint, yet is highly nutritious. Historic low investment, however, has resulted in millets being underappreciated. The Odisha Millets Mission is fighting to change this by working with a wide range of stakeholders, from farmers and producer organisations, to NGOs and women’s self-help groups. Their approach includes improving productivity of millet-based crop systems, conserving and promoting millet landraces, and developing processing enterprises. Simultaneously, the project is applying various creative means to increase consumer demand for millet products, such as sponsoring sports teams, partnering with chefs, engaging schools, promoting millet-based snacks, and even composing a song for the UN’s International Year of Millets.
“The Odisha Millets Mission is using a fork-to-farm behaviour transformation approach, with a focus on integrating millets in rural and urban food systems and value chains, by involving primary producers, mostly smallholders, women self-help groups, and other stakeholders."- Dr Arabinda kumar Padhee, Principal Secretary, Agriculture and Farmer’s’ Empowerment, Government of Odisha, India
The featured projects:
AI-AMMS: AI coupled with Aerial iMaging and Mobile Sensing by Dr Kang Liu , The University of Sheffield
Could an AI-informed imaging system help farmers to avoid excessive pesticide use? AI-AMMS is investigating whether a drone-mounted hyperspectral imaging system could detect wheat diseases based on changes in light reflected from the plants. Their aim is to develop a deep-learning based model that can detect diseases before visible symptoms are apparent, then recommend whether pesticides are needed based on known regional crop disease tolerance levels. The project has already developed a model with an accuracy of around 95%, generated interest from key stakeholders, and secured additional follow-on funding.
‘Our project has shown the potential for adaptive AI-enabled mobile intelligence for climate-smart pest management that can optimise sustainable and resilient farming.’ Dr Kang Liu
AIKPlatform - Preservation and Visualization of African Indigenous Knowledge for Resilient Food Systems 2.0 by Dr Steven Sam, Brunel University London
Most food in Africa is produced by small-scale, traditional farmers but the penetration of modern agriculture, rural-urban migration and land grabbing are causing valuable indigenous knowledge to be lost. The AIKPlatform project is countering this by building a digital platform to capture, store, and share this knowledge for learning and research. Drawing on STFC capabilities in citizen science, the team worked with farmers to co-design a platform that integrates farmer knowledge and experiences (for instance, captured by self-recorded videos) with quantitative data. In the future, the team hope to add an interface for food-related datasets and to develop learning resources for schools.
‘The AIKPlatform is promoting resilient food systems by bridging the gap between indigenous and scientific knowledge; facilitating knowledge sharing and learning; and promoting gender equality and inclusive agricultural development.’ Dr Steven Sam
Corn yield prediction via integration of remote sensing, machine learning and crop modelling by Mr Vivatvong Vichit-Vadakan , SkyVIV
Sweetcorn is a major cash crop and export product for Thailand, but once harvested it must be processed within 24 hours. With no system to optimise deliveries to processing plants, this results in frequent times of over- or under-supply. This project is investigating two potential methods to help predict sweetcorn yields: a multispectral imaging system coupled with machine learning algorithms, and a crop modelling software based on input variables (such as corn cultivar, amount of fertiliser, temperature, etc.). So far, the team have achieved around 90% accuracy with both methods, and are now investigating whether they can be combined to improve this even further.
‘Being able to predict yields of sweetcorn crops would result in eliminating waste, as well as optimising processing plant operations. We anticipate that this approach can be applied to other key economic crops of Southeast Asia, particularly rice, palm oil, coffee, and high value tropical fruits.’ Mr Vivatvong Vichit-Vadakan
Evaluating influence of moisture in controlling release of nutrients in novel green fertiliser using neutron imaging and muonic X-rays by Professor Ruben Sakrabani , Cranfield University
Organic fertilisers offer a more sustainable alternative to conventional, mineral-based fertilisers, but their higher variability makes it difficult for farmers to consistently apply the right levels of nutrients. Following a successful SFN Proof of Concept project, Professor Sakrabani is leading follow-on work using neutron computed tomography and muonic X rays to investigate how moisture content affects the physical integrity and chemical composition of a novel pellet-based organic fertiliser. So far, they are working to determine the critical point of moisture absorption that causes the pellets to buckle and release nutrients, which could help to optimise spreading regimes.
Read more here in this SFN blog post.
‘Besides reducing our reliance on chemical fertilisers and lowering our carbon footprint, optimal use of organic fertilisers will help farmers to apply the right nutrients to their crops at the right time.’ Professor Ruben Sakrabani
Monitoring tropical pollinators in conventional and organic fruit orchards in central Thailand by Dr Maria Anastasiadi, Cranfield University
Pesticide use is known to be a major cause of declining pollinators in Western countries, but very little is known about how these are affecting tropical bee species. Using deep learning methods, this project has developed an automated application for bee monitoring based on data captured by time-lapse cameras in guava orchards in central Thailand. For most species, the model has an average accuracy of over 90%, performing well on both static images and video footage. The team have developed the tool into a user-friendly interface that allows bee species diversity and abundance to be readily compared between organic and conventional agricultural systems.
‘Collecting data on pollinators can be labour intensive and time-consuming, meaning that new and effective ways to assess their activity were urgently needed.’ Dr Maria Anastasiadi
Non-disruptive in situ root imaging to investigate the role of soil microbes in cowpea drought stress-adaptive responses by Dr Steven Chivasa , Durham University
As a high-protein crop, cowpea can be a nutritious food source for smallholder farmers in Zimbabwe. However, high levels of soil degradation limit the crop’s productivity and make it more vulnerable to drought. By carrying out non-invasive imaging at STFC’s Diamond Light Source facility, this project is investigating whether a lack of soil microbes is the key reason for this. This confirmed that soil microbes are essential for cowpea to develop a good root system and to withstand drought. The group are now using genetic approaches, such as DNA sequencing, to try to identify the specific microbes responsible for these effects.
‘There is increasing interest within the agrotechnology industry in ‘bioprospecting’ for microbes that we can use to protect crops against drought and other stresses.’ Dr Steven Chivasa
Species identification using sRGB image technology for field-based biomonitoring of agricultural ecosystem by Dr Rajneesh Dwevedi , The University of Delhi
Soil-dwelling organisms play many essential roles in promoting healthy soils where crops can thrive, but there are few accessible tools to monitor soil biodiversity. This project aims to develop a machine learning-powered app for Indian farmers that can identify species from uploaded images. After collecting sixty soil samples from across North India, the team developed a prototype model for identifying organisms present on the soil surface that has already revealed significant differences between organic and intensive farms . The team are now working to expand the range of species the model can identify, including those that dwell deep within the soil.
Read more here in this SFN blog post.
‘Ultimately, we hope this tool will encourage farmers to switch to sustainable agricultural practices that are not just beneficial to us, but also friendly to soil fauna as well.’ Dr Rajneesh Dwevedi
Artificial Neural Network based Segmentation to detect objects in Hyperspectral image data captured for agriculture by Ms Neetu Sigger , The University of Buckingham
Hyperspectral imaging has immense potential for real-time monitoring of agricultural systems, but the massive amounts of data make it difficult to identify relevant features. Drawing on STFC capabilities in artificial intelligence, remote sensing, and crop image analysis, this project is investigating methods to efficiently extract data from hyperspectral images to aid agricultural decision making. Using an approach based on diffusion modelling, they were able to extract both spectral and spatial dimensions, and map land use (?) from images with over 81% accuracy. The team now intend to expand the model, for instance to identify crop varieties, monitor plant growth, and detect crop diseases.
‘Our model also has many potential commercial applications such as in urban planning, disaster management, and forensic analysis.’ Ms Neetu Sigger
You can watch the session ‘Smart and Sustainable Agriculture’ here (Keynote between 9:00- 31:00; project presentations from 32:20 onwards)
Over the next few months, we will be showcasing more of the sessions from the SFN+ 2023 Annual Conference. To keep updated about new posts, you can sign up to receive the monthly SFN+ email newsletter.
How can we build smart and sustainable food supply chains? - A roundup from the SFN+ 5th Annual Conference on 3rd and 4th July 2023
Efforts to increase food security often focus either on the production side or consumer behaviour. But the supply chains linking the two can have an enormous impact on how resilient food systems are – as demonstrated all too well during the disruption of the COVID-19 pandemic. Besides this, the global and often highly distributed nature of food supply chains means these offer countless intervention points to improve the sustainability and social benefits of food products.
At the STFC Food Network+ (SFN+) 2023 Annual Conference, seven innovative projects supported by the network were presented during the session ‘Smart and Sustainable Food Supply Chains.’ Together, these demonstrate the value in focusing on the entire journey from farm to fork, and in particular, the transformative potential that STFC capabilities in data science could bring to food supply chains.
UK-India bilateral trade: Measuring and monitoring Net Zero Food Trade
PI: Dr Ramanjaneyulu GV, Centre for Sustainable Agriculture
Shifting to organic farming could play a major role in helping India to achieve Net Zero targets. A key driver would be access to lucrative organic export markets (including the UK), however this is currently hindered by a lack of harmonised compliance systems and a multiplicity of different sustainability labelling schemes. This project is addressing this by building a user-friendly data stack, called eKrishi, which will draw data on ecosystem services, traceability, and quality assurance into one place. The intention is that this will facilitate data management for harmonised quality assurance systems, link food producers to markets, and provide data to support effective policy decisions. The team are also working with Farmer Producer Organisations to specifically reach smallholder farmers, by providing advisory services and business development.
‘If we are to help developing countries to transition to more sustainable food production at farm level, we need to create an ecosystem to help them access the premium market for sustainable products more easily. In this sense, the trade between the UK and India could be an important lever for change.’ Dr Ramanjaneyulu GV
Fraud Indicators: Winning the War against Food Fraud with STFC Data Science
PI: Dr Edward Smart, The University of Portsmouth
Sudden shock events, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, can prompt a surge in food fraud activities, which pose significant risks for public health and the environment. But what if food-related data streams could be harnessed to detect fraud in real-time? Using STFC data science expertise and the DAFNI computing cluster, this project sought to establish whether this could be feasible using currently available data. This revealed, however, that fraud-related data sets are currently too limited and heterogenous to develop advanced analytical tools. Using this insight, the team were able to secure additional grants from the Food Standards Agency and Innovate UK to estimate the true cost of food crime in the UK, and to investigate how AI-powered tools could help food producers better manage food fraud risks in their supply chains.
Developing a data-driven communication platform for improving farmed fish distribution in Kenya
PI: Dr Mary Opiyo
Farmed fish could provide a valuable source of protein and micronutrients to address food security concerns in Eastern Africa. But currently, inefficient supply chains mean that farmers struggle to find buyers in time, resulting in high levels of post-harvest losses and wastage. This project aims to address this by developing a user-friendly communication platform that will directly link fish farmers and market traders in Kenya. Through carrying out interviews and online surveys with over a hundred stakeholders, the team have established the critical challenges on both the demand and supply sides, and the key features a digital trading platform should have. They are now working to integrate the platform with databases using cloud services, to provide users with real-time data on farmed fish supplies and market prices.
‘In the long term, we intend to use advanced analytics methods such as statistics, machine learning, and other AI-based techniques, to generate new insights or deeper knowledge about the underlying problems affecting farmed fish distribution in Kenya.’ Dr Mary Opiyo and Dr Baris Yuce
Building a Food Waste Tracker for Responsible Consumption and Sustainability Enhancement
PI Dr Shuyang Li, Uni of Sheffield
An estimated 6.6 million tonnes of household food are wasted in the UK every year (WRAP 2018). A key problem is a lack of joined-up data streams between consumers and retailers to identify inefficiencies in supply chains. This project is tackling this by engaging major supermarkets and local food producers to build integrated databases that can be used with AI-powered algorithms to track and reduce food waste across the entire food system. In parallel, the team are working on an app for consumers that will help them keep track of their food purchasing and food wastage behaviours. With AI-based algorithms, the app will analyse each consumer’s behaviour to recommend specific actions to reduce food waste, whilst providing simultaneous feedback to retailers.
Integrating optimisation modelling with STFC DAFNI Platform to minimise waste in collection and redistribution of food surplus in Southeast Asia
PI: Dr Vahid Akbari, The University of Nottingham
Redistributing surplus food can play an important role in reducing food waste whilst improving food security for the most vulnerable. But due to the demand for and supply of surplus food being so unpredictable, redistribution organisations face serious logistical challenges that can result in wastage. This project is exploring whether food redistribution chains in Southeast Asia can be optimised by coupling them to real-time data enabled by Internet of Things (IoT) technologies. It builds on previous work by the team which developed an IoT-enabled weighing scale to measure and categorise food donations for a Bangkok-based NGO. Going forward, the team aim to analyse recorded data using the STFC DAFNI platform to develop machine learning models capable of providing forecasts of donations and demand. This could allow data-driven fleet management decisions, leading to reduced food loss.
‘Having a better forecast of demand and supply values for surplus food will enable redistribution organisations to design more accurate routes, which in turn would minimize food loss while maximizing donation redistributions.’ Dr Vahid Akbari
Blockchain enabled Cloud Computing based integrated Carbon Calculator (Be4C)
PI: Dr Sushma Kumari, The University of Hull
We all know that beef cattle have a disproportionately large carbon footprint, creating an urgent need for more sustainable farming practices. However, we currently lack a holistic beef carbon calculator that encompasses the entire supply chain, rather than just parts of it in isolation. This proof-of-concept project is investigating the feasibility of developing a comprehensive beef carbon calculator that considers everything from the breed of cattle, to transport, storage, and packaging. A key innovation is to base this on blockchain technology, allowing distributed stakeholders to input their data right across the supply chain. The overall aim is to develop an interface that can provide accurate carbon calculations for different beef products, and make tailored recommendations on how to lower these.
Exploring the feasibility of Geographic Indication marketing to improve pastoral livestock marketing in Kenya
PI: Dr Aditya Parmar, The University of Greenwich
In Kenya, sheep and cattle products produced by traditional pastoralist communities are highly sought by consumers, due to their distinct flavour qualities. However, there is currently no market structure or traceability scheme to enable these farmers to command a premium price for their products. This proof-of-concept project is investigating whether a track and trace system (potentially linked to an IoT and blockchain system) could facilitate a Geographic Indication (GI) scheme, similar to those in Western markets. Through structured interviews and surveys in the Marsabit County of Kenya, the team have confirmed a high interest among stakeholders in such a scheme. Current challenges, however, include limited knowledge on the GI marketing concept, and the lack of an ability to scientifically trace livestock products.
‘We are now investigating how GI schemes could be integrated into existing plans for development in these regions, such as county livestock development agendas, national traceability strategies, and work to promote the goat and sheep value chain.’ Dr Aditya Parmar
You can watch the session ‘Smart and Sustainable Food Supply Chains’ here (presentations are given between 01:38:48 and 02:18:40).
Over the next few months, we will be showcasing more of the sessions from the SFN+ 2023 Annual Conference. To keep updated about new posts, you can sign up to receive the monthly SFN+ email newsletter.
A project supported by a STFC Food Network (SFN) Scoping Project Grant has demonstrated how digital technologies could help create a thriving farmed fish economy in Kenya – supporting livelihoods and increasing access to healthy protein.
It is said that if you give a man a fish you can feed him for a day, but if you teach him how to fish, he can earn a living for himself. But what if he can’t get his fish to the market?
This is the situation facing many fish farmers in Kenya, which has one of the fastest-growing fresh water aquaculture sectors in Africa. But despite this, production remains low and post-harvest losses currently reduce yields by around 40% (FAO, 2011; Kimiywe, 2015) . A key problem is the general lack of cold-storage facilities to keep harvested fish fresh, and farmers struggling to find buyers in time when the harvest is ready.
According to Dr Mary A. Opiyo, a Research Scientist from the Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute (KMFRI), “overcoming these challenges would have immense economic, environmental, and social impacts in Kenya. With supplies from wild fish becoming ever-more precarious, farmed fish is likely to play an increasingly important role in maintaining a healthy protein supply across African countries.” At the same time, consumer interest in eating fish has been growing, supported by Government initiatives such as the Eat More Fish campaigns.
But before fish can become a larger part of Kenyan diets, the supply needs to be matched with the demand. “This gave me the idea for a data-driven communication platform to link fish supply chain members in Kenya, so that farmers always have a ready market for their produce” says Mary. As part of a multidisciplinary team of both Kenyan and UK researchers, Mary applied for and was awarded a SFN Scoping Project Grant to investigate how feasible this would be.
Identifying the critical challenges
Together, the team’s expertise included both first-hand knowledge of fish breeding, aquaculture systems, and food supply chains in Kenya, besides large-scale data science, digital supply chains, and technologies to reduce food waste. This enabled them to take a holistic, whole-system approach to map out the current situation and identify the most effective points for intervention.
The first stage was to assess the specific challenges affecting key stakeholders by carrying out interviews and online surveys with over a hundred fish farmers and traders.
For the farmers, key challenges included:
Lack of cold-chain facilities to keep fish fresh after harvest;
Low availability of fish feed, making it difficult to produce large harvests;
Inconsistent harvests, making it challenging to find repeat buyers;
Competition from cheaper farmed fish (tilapia) imported from Uganda or China.
Difficulty in finding customers when they had fish to sell was one of the most dominant concerns. For 39% of the respondents, this was one of the major reasons that caused harvested fish to be
For fish traders, meanwhile, the critical issues were:
High production costs for Kenyan farmed fish resulting in a more expensive product
(compared to cheaper imports);
Buyers not being aware about where fish is available for sale;
A lack of information about the safety and traceability of farmed fish;
Farmers not understanding the market’s needs – for instance, farmers often producing fish larger than the consumers’ preferred size.
Both farmers and traders agreed that there was a chronic mismatch between supply and demand in the Kenyan fish farming sector, with around 45% believing that demand was less than the supply, and 50% feeling that demand outstripped supply. “This shows that, at the same time, farmers are losing fish because they can’t find a buyer, yet there are buyers and traders who can’t access fish to sell to their customers” says Mary. “If these two groups could be connected, this would open up a market for the sector to expand.”
Harnessing the power of digital technologies
Besides these issues, the stakeholder surveys also revealed an untapped potential solution: digital technologies. Most of the surveyed fish farmers relied on making phone calls to individual customers to sell their fish, with digital methods (such as a Facebook page or shared mobile application) used by less than 10%. As well as being highly time-intensive, this method naturally restricted farmers to approaching customers they were already in contact with. In contrast, a ‘digital marketplace’ would enable farmers to interact seamlessly with both existing customers and new potential buyers.
Although a number of such apps are already used in Kenyan food supply chains, take-up remains extremely low, and almost none have been specifically designed for the fish sector. “Another key problem with these existing digital platforms is that they do not operate in real-time, so they can’t show the latest prices in the market” adds Mary.
In order to understand what might encourage greater use of digital apps, the stakeholder group were asked what features of these would be most important for them. Farmers and traders agreed unanimously that a digital marketplace app should show up-to-date pricing information, with most also agreeing that the location and availability of the fish were also crucial. Other important elements included the delivery time required to reach the customer, and the distribution network, i.e. whether the fish was coming directly from the farmer or an intermediate trader.
“We also found that both farmers and traders were keen to have the option of posting a photograph of the fish for sale” says Mary. “In addition, traders who did not have a smartphone themselves preferred a digital marketplace that had a USSD code, so that they could be sent information on current prices and stock availability by text message.”
The next steps
Having demonstrated both stakeholder interest and a strong potential impact for a digital marketplace, the next stage of the project will involve developing a prototype platform to be piloted in Western Kenya with fish aggregators, fish traders, fish farmers, and selected consumers.
“Within a few years we would like to see a functioning digital marketplace opening up access to healthy fish in Kenya, with traders and consumers able to buy and sell fish with just a touch of a button” says Mary. “In addition, the platform could also enable more women to sell fish as a livelihood. This would help address the current gender divisions of labour that create power imbalances between men and women in the fishing communities in Western Kenya (Kwena et al., 2017).”
The full project team was: Dr Jens Jensen (STFC), Dr Mary A. Opiyo (Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute), Ms Morine Mukami (Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute), Dr Paul Sagwe Orina (Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute), Professor Wantao Yu (University of Roehampton), Dr Baris Yuce (University of Exeter), and Dr Oznur Yurt (The Open University).
FAO. (2011). Post-harvest fish loss assessment in small-scale fisheries A guide for the extension
officer. In FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper 559 (Vol. 559).
Kimiywe, J. (2015). Food and nutrition security: Challenges of post-harvest handling in Kenya.
Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 74(4), 487–495.
Kwena, Z. A., Shisanya, C. A., Bukusi, E. A., Turan, J. M., Dworkin, S. L., Rota, G. A., & Mwanzo, I. J.
(2017). Jaboya (“Sex for Fish”): A Qualitative Analysis of Contextual Risk Factors for Extramarital
Partnerships in the Fishing Communities in Western Kenya. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 46(7),
With support from the STFC Food Network+ (SFN), this project is modelling a future of local, ‘closed-loop’ urban food production systems where nothing goes to waste.
Our food systems are under immense pressure to produce more whilst simultaneously reducing pesticide and fertiliser use, carbon emissions, water use, and food miles. At the same time, the way we purchase food is undergoing dramatic change, with goods being increasingly sourced online, rather than from high streets. The sight of empty shop units may appear depressing, but for Peter Ball they represent an opportunity: a chance to address fundamental issues of food production whilst building thriving local communities.
“I am a firm believer that many of these grand challenges we face with our current production systems can be addressed by returning manufacturing to a more local or regional level – whether it is food, drink, construction materials or other volume-low technology products” says Peter, a Professor of Operations Management at the University of York Management School.
“Besides reducing the climate and environmental impact of food production, this can support local economies, give greater understanding about where our products come from, put unused space to work, and generate employment. It also presents the opportunity to build local circular economies, with ‘waste’ resources being recaptured and fed back into the system as input materials for new products.”
For Peter, a particularly promising area is vertical farming, where plants are grown indoors in controlled environments. Besides reducing food miles by bringing agriculture into urban spaces, vertical farms are also more water- and space-efficient, and can remove the need for pesticides and herbicides. Additional benefits include the fact they can be set up practically anywhere (even underground), and that they allow year-round food production, sheltered from the elements.
“Here in York, for instance, the University teamed up with LettUs Grow, an indoor farming technology company, to set up a vertical farm demonstrator project right in the heart of the city ” says Peter. “Not only can crops be used locally at the peak of freshness and nutrients but we can engage consumers in where their food comes from.”
But isolated units don’t feed cities; for urban farms to have a significant impact on local consumption, these need to function as a network with their outputs matching consumer demands. But Peter believes this should go even further. His vision is for vertical farms to be integrated with local waste flows, so that the remaining value in food and food production waste is immediately put to use in nourishing the next crop. Up to now, however, there has been very little data to indicate whether this could be possible – a problem which inspired Peter to apply for a SFN Scoping Grant.
A model solution
“A key issue with using food waste flows as inputs for growing systems is that these are highly variable and dynamic, so ensuring a consistent supply of the right nutrients can be challenging” Peter explains. “Our aim was to provide a digital demonstrator to model waste flows in urban areas and explore how these could be optimised to create food production systems using circular economy principles.”
This drew upon Peter’s expertise in using simulation modelling (digital twins) to capture system behaviour and improve performance. To develop the model, Peter and his colleagues sourced live data on production from the vertical farm demonstrator in the centre of York. In addition, they used public data sources to generate information on potential locations and volumes of food waste outputs.
In the model, the waste flows were processed by IntelliDigest digestors, which use enzymes from bacteria and plants to turn inedible food waste into a broth-like nutrient liquid. The team analysed the simulated data to see how closely the output matched the nutrient requirements of growing crops.
From brewery waste to building materials
Beyond fertiliser, the team were also keen to explore whether additional waste streams could be harnessed to provide construction materials for vertical farms, or even an energy source to keep them running. “One of the barriers to scaling up vertical farms is the high initial capital costs, and the considerable energy demands” admits Peter. The team partnered with a local brewery, Brew York , to obtain samples of spent grain waste from beer production. Project partner WASWARE, a company that specialises in turning waste materials into novel biocomposite materials, then processed these into bioresin, and in turn bioleather and bioboard.
“These new materials showed strong potential for use in vertical farm construction” says Peter. “This has led to ideas not just around changing existing materials but changing how we design structures in the first place.”
The next steps
According to Peter, although the project’s findings are promising for vertical farm expansion, much work remains still to be done. “The next stage is to develop more sophisticated models with access to live data streams to populate them with real information. We also need to build more case studies that include other urban areas, including those in developing countries.”
“This collaboration funded by the SFN Scoping Grant enabled a diverse group of organisations to apply expertise into a common challenge and test out ideas” he added. “We are now pursuing a larger collaborative project on nutrient cycling, and have just started a project to develop new building materials and challenge existing farm design norms.”
The STFC code used for the model simulation can be found on GitHub.
The project was a collaborative team effort involving both academia and business. The team members were: Ehsan Badakhshan (University of York), Peter Ball (University of York), Joseph Bell (Wasware Ltd), Nicola Holden (SRUC), Jens Jensen (STFC), Ifeyinwa Kanu (IntelliDigest Ltd), Lydia Smith (NIAB), and Xiaobin Zhao (Wasware Ltd).
Find out more:
Using machine learning to unlock the secrets of plant productivity - STFC Food Network+
IntelliDigest: an innovative solution to put food waste to work - STFC Food Network+
With funding from an STFC Food Network+ (SFN) Scoping Grant, an exciting project has shown the potential for computational genetics to detect the most dangerous strains of a notorious food-borne bacteria, Shigatoxigenic E. coli
No matter how inviting a plate of food may look, it could be harbouring an invisible threat. According to the Food Standards Agency, 2.4 million people in the UK become ill from food-borne pathogens every year, at a cost of to society of around £9.1 billion. One of the most notorious of these is Shiga-toxin producing (Shigatoxigenic) Escherichia coli (STEC), which can cause symptoms ranging from gastroenteritis and kidney failure, to meningitis and even death. A public health priority risk, STEC infections are most commonly associated with undercooked minced meat products, underwashed salad vegetables, unpasteurised dairy products, and handling foods with soil residues. The World Health Organization estimate that in 2010 food-borne STEC caused more than one million illnesses, 128 deaths, and nearly 13,000 Disability Adjusted Life Years.
Controlling these outbreaks depends on being able to rapidly identify contaminated food products. But this is complicated by the fact that not all STEC strains are pathogenic, as Nicola Holden, Professor in Food Safety at SRUC, explains. “For an individual STEC strain to cause disease, it needs the right combination of several different factors. These include the anitgens on its surface, the toxins it produces, and the virulence factors that enable it to infect a cell. The exact combination of these will determine the ability to cause severe disease. It is similar to the different coronavirus variants, where small differences in, for instance, the spike protein, affect transmissibility and disease severity.”
To date, most cases of food poisoning from STEC have been caused by the O157 strain, so-called because it carries a distinct ‘O antigen’ that can be recognised in serology tests. But recent years have seen a worrying trend: a rise in STEC cases caused by non-O157 isolates.
“We currently don’t have any rapid means of identifying the STEC strains behind these new disease cases” says Nicola. “Diagnostic laboratories have to carry out additional tests to assess what combination of antigens, toxins and virulence factors a particular strain has, so they can work out the overall likelihood that it can cause severe disease. This takes time and introduces uncertainty.”
Unless we can detect these dangerous pathogens quickly, outbreaks can rapidly spiral out of control. Consequently, Nicola believes it is time to overhaul these “historic and cumbersome” diagnostic methods and instead adopt a new approach that uses the power of genetics. “We saw during the COVID-19 pandemic how the introduction of lateral flow devices completely changed the game when it came to controlling the spread of the disease” she says. “Ultimately, that is what we need for STEC: a DNA-based method to enable rapid diagnostics using miniaturised point-of-care devices. This would help identify contaminated products and likely transmission routes quickly enough to control potentially dangerous STEC outbreaks.”
In December 2021, Nicola was awarded a STFC Scoping Grant to explore how feasible this would be by searching for genetic signatures that could distinguish between pathogenic and non-pathogenic STEC strains.
Step one: Assembling a genomic library
The first stage of the project was to compile as many genomes as possible from a diverse range of STEC isolates. Together with her co-investigators Dr Martynn Winn, a Computational Biologist at STFC Harwell, and Dr Tim Dallman, an expert in food-borne pathogens at the University of Utrecht, Nicola convened an online stakeholder workshop in December 2021. This brought together a wide range of research- and policy-related organisations who work on STEC, including the Scottish E. coli reference lab, the Food Standards Agency and Food Standards Scotland, and the Animal and Plant Health Agency.
“Working with these partners, we were able to access a good range of different STEC genomes held in reference databases, over 200 in total” says Nicola. “Crucially, these included 104 samples from human patients that we knew had been responsible for causing clinical disease.” The remaining samples had been collected during surveys on Scottish deer, cheese, and mince.
Step two: Comparing genes and genomes
Having acquired a diverse library of genomes, the team then used comparative genetic approaches to categorise genes as being ‘disease related’ and ‘non disease’ related.
First, they took an ‘informed’ approach, by searching for specific genes known to code for virulence factors in clinically pathological isolates. “Because these genes are more likely to be associated with pathological isolates, their presence indicates a likely clinical disease outcome” says Nicola. Mapping these virulence factor genes across the wider set of STEC genomes identified their presence in certain food and wildlife isolates, indicating that these may also be pathogenic.
In the second stage, the team used an ‘unguided’ approach, that assumed no prior knowledge about the genes and their functions. Instead, the genomes as a whole were compared against each other to assess which regions were shared across the different samples. “This approach enables us to quickly assess which genetic regions are commonly seen across different pathological samples, and could therefore be associated with clinical disease” says Nicola.
Using these methods, the team successfully identified common genetic signatures that could distinguish different classes of STEC.
Step three: Explore the potential of Big Data
Besides these relatively straightforward comparative techniques, the team were also keen to investigate the potential of Big Data approaches, including machine learning- and artificial intelligence-based methods. With the SFN funding, they provided a three-month internship to PhD student Eddie Martin (University of Edinburgh) to explore whether these could help distinguish the most harmful pathogens from closely related ones that don’t cause disease.
“AI tools that use deep-learning offer exciting potential to investigate beyond the identification of genomic sequences” says Nicola. “For instance, they could help to determine if a similarity in sequence between two genes ultimately translates into functional similarity.”
Going forwardIn August 2022, Nicola and her colleagues convened a second stakeholder workshop at STFC Harwell to share their results so far, and to discuss the next stages for the project. The team are now seeking funding for a larger project to exploit the predictive power of Big Data to accurately classify pathogenic STEC.
“Further project development will fall into two main areas” says Nicola. “First, the basic bioscience – that is, refining the computational approaches so that these can sufficiently discriminate pathogenic bacteria. And secondly, applied bioscience to assess how to incorporate these methods into point-of-care devices for rapid diagnostics and surveillance.”
“Another challenge we hope to address is data accessibility” she adds. “There are currently many barriers to obtaining high-quality genomic data associated with clinical disease, and this is true for any human pathogen. This makes it crucial that this work is developed in partnership with our stakeholders. The SFN+ project provided an excellent opportunity to bring together a diverse team who would not have had the chance otherwise.”
According to Nicola, once DNA sequence-based diagnostic approaches have been refined, they would be an excellent route forward to discriminate between any set of pathogens and other organisms. We may never be able to eliminate food-borne bugs completely, but the near future shows promise for them no longer being such a scourge within our food systems.
You can keep up to date with Nicola’s work by following her on Twitter: @NicolaJHolden
Antigen: A toxin or other foreign substance which provokes an immune response in the body, particularly the production of antibodies.
Serology test: A laboratory test that assesses the presence of antibodies and other substances in a blood sample.
With support from the STFC Food Network+ (SFN), an interdisciplinary collaboration is breaking new ground in developing low-cost, accurate and autonomous technologies to measure soil properties.
“Climate change and soil degradation are twin threats to food security but we can address both at once by improving soil health” says Dr Marcelo Galdos, a soil carbon specialist at Rothamsted Research. “Improving soil carbon levels, for example, boosts productivity and yields by improving nutrient availability and making the system more resilient to climate extremes. At the same time, this can also contribute to bringing down carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere.”
Our soils are in a perilous state, with a third of global agricultural soils thought to be moderately to highly degraded (FAO). But to restore our soils on a global scale, it is essential that we can quickly and accurately map properties related to soil health in order to understand which regenerative agricultural methods are most effective. A key challenge, however, is that soils vary immensely in terms of their physical, chemical, and biological properties and there is currently no single sensor capable of effectively monitoring all the relevant parameters. In addition, most soil measurement methods are highly time- and labour-intensive, requiring sampling from many different locations in a field.
Faced with this situation, Marcelo (then at the University of Leeds) applied for a STFC Food Network+ Scoping Grant to explore potential soil sensing technologies that could be both affordable and automated. This became the Multi-sensor Agricultural Robot for Soils (MARS) project.
Bringing down costs
The first objective of MARS was to investigate whether the cost and accuracy of soil measurements could be improved by using novel sensors. To do this, Marcelo joined forces with colleagues from the Schools of Computer Science, Electronic and Electrical Engineering, and Food Science at the University of Leeds, and with Dr Patrick Stowell from the School of Physics at the University of Durham. “Patrick provided us with a prototype of an affordable gamma ray sensor that he had designed” says Marcelo. “Professor Megan Povey from the University of Leeds meanwhile is an expert in using ultrasound in food-science applications, such as quality control. This project gave her an opportunity to apply this technology in a completely new area.”
The sensors were tested in tandem at the University of Leeds Research Farm site over the 2022 summer, measuring levels of potassium-40 using the gamma ray probe (as a proxy for soil moisture composition) and using the ultrasound probes to assess soil physical properties. “The gamma ray data was able to produce a working map of soil moisture concentration, and we even identified areas in the field with increased water content due to some blocked drainage pits” Marcelo says. “We found, however, that use of the ultrasound sensor would require more research under controlled conditions to calibrate the system.”
The second component of the project was to assess whether soil monitoring could ultimately become completely automated. “Robotics within UK agriculture is a very exciting sphere at the moment, and many start-ups have already developed promising protypes of automated systems” Marcelo says.
But although putting a sensor on a robot sounds simple, this is far from the case, as Marcelo explains: “We had to overcome numerous smaller challenges even before we could start trying to take any measurements. For instance, where should the sensor be installed? How would it be powered? How do we program the robot to move automatically? And how can we capture and record the data?”
A particularly difficult problem was developing a mechanism to raise and lower the sensor probe to touch the soil at exactly the right pressure. With support from students in mechanical engineering at the University of Leeds, the team designed and 3D-printed a custom robotic arm that could be mounted on top of the rover.
Having equipped the robot with an ultrasound sensor in this way, Dr Syed Zaidi (School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Leeds) worked with postgraduate students to develop a web interface and self-driving algorithm so that the rover could be automatically programmed to move to a target coordinate and take measurements. The rover was tested in a field on the Leeds Farm, and successfully drove to specific points in the field were measurements would be collected. “Our next step will be to program the rover to take measurements based on covariates including topography, land cover and soil properties” says Marcelo.
Having moved to Rothamsted in July 2023, Marcelo is excited by the prospect of developing this technology further at this centre for excellence in soil science.
“Founded in 1843, Rothamsted has some of the longest-running continuous crop experiments in the world” says Marcelo. “This will give us the opportunity to test these technologies on fields for which we have soil data going back over many decades.” Besides developing the prototype rover further, he and his collaborators intend to investigate a range of other potential sensor/robot combinations, for instance integrating drones and satellite data into the analysis.
“Funding for feasibility studies such as the SFN Scoping Grants are immensely important for getting innovative ideas off the ground” Marcelo adds. “They allow you to develop a proof of concept to the point that you can attract further investment, besides giving you the freedom to seek out collaborators and build a team. This project ultimately led to me working with experts from a wide range of disciplines, including soil physicists, computer scientists, mechanical engineers, robotics researchers, and specialists in Internet of Things technologies. But this seems highly appropriate, because critical problems such as restoring our global soils will require innovation from many different areas.”
Gamma spectroscopy: When used in soil sensing applications, gamma spectroscopy measures high-energy photons (gamma rays) that are continuously produced in soils due to the presence of radioactive elements, such as potassium-40. Water in the soil inhibits the flow of gamma rays from the soil to the surface, hence there is an inverse relationship between soil moisture content and the gamma signal recorded above ground.
A project supported by a STFC Food Network+ (SFN) Scoping Grant has found that borrowing solutions from space technologies could make a dramatic difference in reducing food loss in developing countries.
Reducing food waste is an urgent challenge, both to achieve food security for the growing global population, and to help us reach net zero carbon emissions. Often, the focus is on consumers but in developing countries around 90% of food wastage occurs in the supply chain, before products even reach the market. A key reason for this is a lack of refrigerated storage and transport.
India, for example, has the sixth largest food and grocery market in the world, yet up to 40% of harvested crops are lost before they can be sold to consumers . With so much of the population dependent on agriculture, these loses keep many rural communities trapped in poverty.
‘Addressing post-harvest food losses in developing countries offers enormous potential to increase food security in these regions’ says Dr Bryan Shaughnessy, head of the Thermal Engineering Group at STFC RAL Space. ‘With such large volumes being lost daily, solutions that make even a small difference will translate into many tonnes of food being saved.’
Although his day job is to design thermal control systems for scientific spacecraft, Bryan became interested in the issue of post-harvest food loss when he attended an SFN meeting in 2017. ‘Talking to other attendees it became clear there was an enormous opportunity to reduce food waste in developing countries by providing cost-effective methods to keep food cool’ says Bryan. ‘It was also apparent that the technology and expertise I apply in developing instruments for use in space missions might bring a new and useful perspective to the problem.’ This led to Bryan being involved in an SFN pilot study in 2018 to consider options to reduce food loss in India.
The transforming power of space technologies
In this latest work, funded by an SFN Scoping Project Grant, RAL Space partnered with Go4fresh, an Indian fresh produce agritech venture, to explore whether space thermal technologies could potentially help design cost-effective and efficient portable cold storage units for foods in transit. Although space rockets and fresh produce may seem worlds apart, they both face the same critical challenge, as Bryan explains:
‘One of the key factors that accelerates food spoilage is large variations in temperature, particularly in developing countries which may have long, highly fragmented supply chains combined with tropical climates. Similarly, spacecraft experience an extremely hostile thermal environment, which ranges from the extreme cold of deep space (around -270°C), to intense heating from the Sun.’
Without careful thermal control, spacecraft simply wouldn’t be able to survive these extreme temperature fluctuations. Consequently, engineers such as Bryan investigate how to exploit the physical properties of materials to keep these instruments within a safe temperature range. These methods include using highly-reflective surface finishes and insulation materials with low thermal conductivity. Because these technologies are typically lightweight and passive – not requiring a power source – they are particularly suitable for areas without a robust energy infrastructure.
For this study, the team focused on tomato production in Nashik, a district in Maharashtra state. With tomatoes having one of the highest percentage losses (around 12%) across vegetables in India, even a small reduction in waste would result in significant savings.
Capturing the temperature profile of a tomato in transit
The first step was to develop a simple thermal model to better understand the heat transfers that tomatoes experience during their journey from the farm to market, via various distribution centres and wholesalers. This was crucial to understand the most important factors that affect how quickly tomatoes spoil, and therefore the requirements that a portable cold chain container would have to meet.
‘Developing this model was actually quite a challenge, because we were adapting software that was designed to predict the temperatures of satellites in the vacuum of space’ says Bryan. ‘Some additional research was needed to better understand the weather conditions in Nashik and find a way to represent this in our model.’
A simulation was then run to represent a ten-day period - a typical transit time for tomatoes destined for non-local markets. The target at this stage was to keep the produce below 25°C throughout the journey.
Simple changes, significant effects
For the baseline scenario, where the tomatoes were transported in open crates, the model indicated that the tomatoes experienced wide temperature fluctuations, reaching a maximum temperature of around 50°C. Even before technical solutions were considered, the analysis demonstrated that simple modifications could make a dramatic difference.
Painting the outer surfaces in white paint, for instance, reduced the temperature fluctuations and the maximum temperature to more like 35°C. ‘This might sound like a simple solution, but white paint is often used as a surface treatment for spacecraft thermal control because of its low solar absorptivity and high infrared emissivity. This means it radiates away more heat than it absorbs from the Sun,’ says Bryan.
The team next investigated the impact of coating the exterior of the box with a finish called a Second Surface Mirror. Like white paint, these thin, transparent materials reflect a high proportion of sunlight but can radiate heat in the infrared, and are often used on spacecraft as part of a passive thermal control system. This performed a little better than the white paint, causing a slight further reduction in temperature. ‘Although Second Surface Mirrors are routinely used on spacecraft, this is interesting because it might be possible to make a similar ‘solar reflective’ sheet using locally-available materials’ Bryan says.
Adding a coolant material, such as an ice pack, also had a significant effect, and kept the tomatoes within safe temperature limits for four days, doubling the time they could be transported. However, the benefit only lasted until the ice pack thawed, and relied on power being available to freeze the ice pack in the first place. The packs also presented the risk of causing chill damage to the tomatoes if they came in direct contact.
Another idea borrowed from space technologies was to add a layer of insulation to effectively decouple the interior of the box from the external environment. Virtually all spacecraft are insulated using blankets made of multiple layers of reflective sheets interleaved with netting. But since these materials aren’t readily available in India, the team instead modelled a scenario where the tomatoes were packed with straw. Incredibly, this achieved a 10°C temperature difference between the inside and outside of the crate, and reduced the maximum temperature experienced by the tomatoes to under 25°C.
The greatest benefits, however, were achieved when these approaches were applied in combination: the outer layer of white paint or a Second Surface Mirror, an inner insulation layer, and an ice pack. In this scenario, the tomatoes experienced no temperature fluctuations and stayed underneath 22°C throughout the ten-day period.
Predictions from simplified model for tomato temperatures over time. Initial temperature 12 °C. (credit: RAL Space)
1. Baseline: Tomatoes are packed in green coloured open top crate
2. Lid: As 1 with addition of green coloured lid
3. White: As 2 but external finishes white
4. SSM: As 2 but external finishes are Second Surface Mirror
5. PCM: As 2 with phase change material added
6. Insulation: As 3 with phase change material added and crate insulated
‘Using the simple model, we demonstrated that improvements are possible using ideas from spacecraft thermal engineering’ says Bryan. ‘The challenge going forward is to develop these into systems that work on the ground and use readily available materials.’ In the near future, the team intend to carry out simple field trials to assess whether similar results can be achieved by retrofitting containers using only locally-available materials.
‘I am excited to be able to apply what I have learnt in my day job to contribute towards addressing global challenges’ Bryan concludes.
COVID-19 shook global food supply chains to the core – but did this result in any long-term changes in societal attitudes towards food? A project funded by the STFC Food Network+ (SFN) combined the power of machine learning approaches with large-scale Twitter data to find out.
The COVID-19 pandemic impacted every aspect of our lives, with food being no exception. For instance, as countries went into lockdown and panic buying swept supermarket shelves bare, many people experienced food insecurity for the first time. And whilst communal meals and eating out became impossible, online shopping and home meal preparation kits soared in popularity. Meanwhile, the sudden increase in home cooking led to greater interest in the health and nutritional attributes of what we eat.
But now that most countries are returning to ‘near normality’, it remains unclear what the long-term repercussions of the pandemic will be. Did these sudden societal changes result in any long-term fundamental shifts in our purchasing behaviours and attitudes towards food? Understanding this could help policy makers to identify the most important food supply concerns of consumers during a crisis situation, which could inform strategies to respond to future emergencies.
Twitter: an ideal tool for research
To investigate whether consumer attitudes towards food were affected by the pandemic, a project backed by the SFN used machine learning methods to mine food-related information contained within social media posts on Twitter. With more than 500 million users worldwide, Twitter has become a global tool for sharing news, expressing opinions, and interacting with others in real time. This makes it highly suitable for capturing large amounts of organic data to explore sentiment and attitudes surrounding food concerns both before and during the COVID-19 pandemic.
“Public attitudes on Twitter have already been used to evaluate consumer perceptions towards brands, predict stock market fluctuations, and assess the success of political campaigns” said project lead, Mohammad Delgosha, Associate Professor in Business Analytics at the University of Birmingham. “But up to now, little attention has been given to the feelings and perceptions of consumers regarding the unique and sheer scale of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on food supply chains.”
Mohammad’s research focuses on data mining, specifically analysing Big Data by employing machine learning techniques to large amounts of unstructured data to find solutions for social, environmental, cultural and practical challenges. In the past, for instance, Mohammad has used textual Big Data to investigate the positives and negatives of automated algorithms being used to manage gig workers in digital platforms such as Uber or Deliveroo.
According to him, Twitter data is highly useful for exploring consumer opinions in an unbiased way. “When we use surveys to try and assess consumer sentiment, these are inevitably constrained to the researcher’s existing knowledge or speculation. Twitter, on the other hand, offers significant amounts of open-ended data to explore open-ended questions” he said.
Capturing meaning from Big Data
The first stage of the project involved capturing tweets generated during two 16-week periods: from 7 August to 8 December 2019, and then the 16 weeks immediately after the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 as a global pandemic on 11 March 2020. By applying search algorithms to Twitter’s Application Programming Interface, posts were extracted that contained keywords related to food (for instance, food, crop, fruits, vegetables, meat, milk, and groceries) or supply-related terms (such as supply, chain, logistics, systems). This resulted in a dataset of around 182,000 tweets from 109,600 different people before COVID-19, and 427,000 tweets from 183,000 people after the lockdowns started.
The sheer size of this dataset meant it would have been impossible to manually analyse it using human coders. So Mohammad used two natural language processing techniques, called topic modelling and sentiment analysis.
“Topic modelling is an unsupervised statistical method for discovering abstract ‘topics’ within textual data. Its principal function is to combine main concepts within a text into a single, understandable structure” said Mohammad. This method scans the collection of text to detect frequently used words or phrases, and groups them to provide a summary that best represents the information in the document.
Sentiment analysis, on the other hand, is a tool used to understand the emotion, opinion, or judgment behind written or spoken language, and to evaluate if this communicates a favourable, unfavourable, or neutral message. Businesses, for example, often apply sentiment analysis to customer comments or online reviews to assess how their customers feel about their product, services, or brand.
The impact of COVID-19 on consumer concerns about food
“Our results indicate that the public sentiment and topics associated with food systems were markedly transformed by the COVID-19 pandemic” said Mohammad. The sentiment analysis, for instance, showed that overall public attitudes towards food had a more negative tone and became more pessimistic during the initial COVID-19 wave, compared with before the pandemic. For instance, before the pandemic, around 47% of tweets had an average positive sentiment, with 36% being negative, and 17% neutral. During the first phase of the pandemic, however, the proportion of negative tweets jumped to 54%, with 24% being positive and 22% being neutral.
Meanwhile, the topic modelling analysis found that the type of food-related concern also changed dramatically. “Before COVID-19, people were concerned more about social and environmental issues such as climate change, ethical concerns, children and healthcare, organic food, animal welfare, and diets” Mohammad explained. “From March to July 2020, however, food insecurity concerns significantly increased, becoming the main concern for the public. In addition, food donation, panic shopping, and the healthcare of workers in the food supply chain became other important concerns during the pandemic. This indicates that policy makers should focus on sustainable food systems and take actions for designing and implementing diverse and resilient food networks, especially for managing global shocks like COVID-19.”
Despite this being the first time Mohammad has used Twitter data within a research project, he is already planning future investigations using similar methods. “Working on this project with the SFN has opened a new chapter for my research profile to continue using textual data from Twitter to answer important and fundamental questions about food supply chains, especially understanding and modelling food security issues in the UK or globally” he said. “Currently, my colleagues and I are working on two different research projects utilizing Twitter data for supply chain management purposes and analysing complaint management by businesses.”
Mohammad would like to thank Nastaran Hajiheydari, Senior Lecturer in Digital Marketing and Analytics at Queen Mary University of London, for his help in collecting and analysing the Twitter data for this project.
A project supported by the SFN aims to empower smallholder farmers in India to become citizen scientists and champions for healthy soils, using a simple tool developed for mobile phones.
‘Across the world, it is the millions of smallholder farmers who are the ones working the soil. Unless we involve them and develop tools that they can easily understand and use, we won’t be able to help soils recover.’ Rajneesh Dwevedi.
When it comes to food security, the focus tends to be on what is happening above ground rather than below our feet. But this needs to change – and fast. Worldwide, a third of agricultural soils are thought to be moderately to highly degraded (FAO), limiting their productivity. Besides putting millions of livelihoods at risk, global soil degradation also has significant impacts on climate change by releasing vast quantities of carbon to the atmosphere.
A key characteristic of healthy soils is that they are highly biodiverse: teeming with life that ranges from microscopic organisms, invertebrates such as nematodes, insect larvae and earthworms, and mammals, reptiles, and amphibians. All of these play a fundamental role in maintaining the benefits of soils that we depend on. For instance, as part of their metabolism many microorganisms transform essential organic and inorganic compounds into forms that plants can use. Larger species, meanwhile, such as earthworms, ants and termites, engineer soil structure through their movements and open up pores for water and gas to flow.
But modern intensive farming methods can have devastating impacts on soil biodiversity. Widespread use of pesticides and fertilizers, compaction from heavy farm machinery, and disruption to soil structure from ploughing devastate the complex webs of life below ground. This results in less efficient nutrient cycling, poorer soil structure and ultimately smaller harvests. It is a vicious cycle: as soil biodiversity decreases, agricultural productivity decreases – causing farmers to resort to even more intensive farming to try and maintain yields.
In contrast, lower impact and regenerative farming methods – such as organic farming and ‘no-till’ farming – can maintain and even restore soil biodiversity. Wider adoption of these could help us start to reverse the perilous conditions of our soils, but a major barrier to this is a lack of ready tools and technologies to easily measure soil health. ‘Maintaining soil ecosystem services is a key challenge for sustainable food production, and one that depends on soil biodiversity’ says Mr Rajneesh Dwevedi (Lady Irwin College, Delhi). 'Achieving this will ultimately depend on the knowledge and actions of farmers. Though farmers often understand the importance of soil health, they are not able to monitor and infer the ecosystem condition accurately.’
As part of a SFN-backed collaboration with the STFC, Rajneesh is addressing this by developing an easy to use, intuitive tool for assessing soil health, designed to be suitable for farmers worldwide regardless of their level of education. To start with, he is focusing on India, where a large proportion of soils (particularly in the Gangetic plains) are severely degraded. Since the presence or absence of certain organisms can be a direct indicator of soil health, Rajneesh’s specific aim is to develop an accessible tool that can quickly identify soil species. Currently, existing guides for assessing soil biodiversity are often highly technical keys and charts, requiring expert knowledge to decipher. But Rajneesh’s vision is for a mobile phone application that uses the power of artificial intelligence to accurately identify soil species from photographs taken by the user.
Having no previous experience of machine-learning approaches before, Rajneesh is working with Dr Melina Zempila from STFC RAL Space to refine the identification algorithms specific for soil organisms that will form the basis of the tool. In particular, Melina’s expert knowledge is helping to refine the method of classification using advanced image analysis based on information from the visible spectrum of light.
But to train a program, you first need a labelled dataset it can learn from. Consequently, the first stage of the project saw Rajneesh travelling across North India between March and August 2022, collecting more than sixty soil samples from as many different farms as possible. This included both farms using intensive, pesticide and fertilizer-heavy practices and those based on organic methods. ‘It was a fascinating new experience to closely study so many different soils across India and to see how the biodiversity varied’ says Rajneesh.
Back in the laboratory at Lady Irwin College, each sample was carefully analyzed and high- resolution images taken of the species to curate a database of labelled images. ‘Not surprisingly, our preliminarily observations found that soil biodiversity can vary significantly with soil type, with organic farms being richer than the conventional farms’ Rajneesh says.
In July, Rajneesh visited the STFC RAL Space facility, based at Harwell, Oxfordshire, to meet Melina and discuss the next stage of the project: developing the identification algorithms. ‘It was a great experience to see the computing capabilities at STFC, and discuss the next stages of the project together. The initial results so far have been promising, with our prototype model being effective in identifying soil fauna present on the soil surface. Below ground species, however, remain difficult as they look similar in the visible spectrum.’
Another challenge will be to tweak the algorithms so they still work effectively on simpler, mobile-phone images rather than the high resolution photographs. ‘As a first goal, we hope this tool will enable farmers to become citizen scientists, capable of mapping soil biodiversity and collecting information simply by taking a photograph. A longer-term aim is that this information can then be used policy makers to identify priority areas for restoration. It could also help farmers to select the best crops for their fields, based on the soil health’ says Rajneesh. If successful in India, the method could be adapted to the soils of countries worldwide.
Reflecting on his involvement so far, Rajneesh says: ‘I’ve really enjoyed working on this, particularly as it has motivated me to learn new things. My background is in biology, so artificial intelligence was completely foreign to me. Even so, I’ve found it a magical experience to get deep into the mathematics behind it. The SFN serves a great purpose in bringing people with different expertise together, to apply science and technology into making new solutions that ultimately help people.’
‘People often assume that grater agricultural productivity always comes at the expense of nature, but I hope we can help show that these do not have to be mutually exclusive. There can be a middle way’ he concludes.
September 2022 - Caroline Wood, Freelance Science Writer